Lecture Series on BioChemistry I by Prof.S.Dasgupta, Dept of Chemistry, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEl visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in.
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(PRWEB) August 29, 2014
Journal of Parasitology — Parasites are among the most successful organisms on our planet, and scientists need to know more about how they manipulate their hosts. To boost their chances of survival, parasites may slow the growth of a host, make mating difficult, or weaken the host’s offspring. However, the authors of an article published in the current issue of the Journal of Parasitology say such statements are insufficient to describe the effects of parasites.
The authors argue that parasitic manipulations do not just target one area, such as growth or reproduction, but many parasites directly affect the overall form and function of their hosts. In turn, such changes adversely affect host fitness and behavior. In other words, parasites affect whole-organism performance capacity. Performance capacity is the measure of how well an animal executes essential tasks such as how fast a fish can swim or how far a grasshopper can jump.
The authors initially examined 101 studies in which researchers had measured how parasites affect host performance capacity. They then narrowed the study to 49 published papers that had sufficient statistical data.
The parasites’ effects on hosts varied depending on factors such as host age, the tissue infected, and whether a study was based on natural infections or experimental. The type of performance affected was also a factor, with parasites more often affecting endurance than speed. In all but a few cases, parasitic infection negatively affected host performance capacity, often significantly. “This result agrees with the general idea that parasites harm or live at the expense of their hosts,” the authors wrote. For example, the mortality rate of animals with parasites is more than twice that of animals without parasites, and infected animals may not be able to reach spawning grounds. Consequently, changes resulting from parasitic infections can affect not just the individual host but host populations, ecosystems, and even the evolution of host species.
Full text of the article “Host performance as a target of manipulation by parasites: A meta-analysis,” Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2014, is now available.
About the Journal of Parasitology
The Journal of Parasitology is the official journal of the American Society of Parasitologists (ASP). It is a medium for the publication of new original research, primarily on parasitic animals, and official business of the ASP. The journal is intended for all with interests in basic or applied aspects of parasitology as well as in systematics, medicine, molecular biology, immunology, physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and behavior. For more information, visit http://www.journalofparasitology.org.
Amino Acids are at the heart of building muscle protein, which is necessary for maintaining strong muscle mass while undergoing strenuous exercise regimes. Without a continuing, healthy supply of amino acids the muscle would lose in both strength and mass rendering most training in bodybuilding ineffectual. In everyday situations, the body produces all the amino acids it needs and draws from diet to produce energy. But serious exercising requires a lot more.
Amino Acids are basically divided into two groups:
Non-Essential Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids
Non-Essential Amino Acids are in fact essential to the body – the term is misleading in that regard. Non-essential amino acids help the body recover from trauma or illness and maintain a healthy metabolism. The body produces an adequate supply of these amino acids for normal activity. There are 13 non-essential amino acids including glutamine, alanine, glycine and proline. The body produces these amino acids by itself and with the help of vitamins.
Essential Amino Acids are produced by the body during digestion, through the breakdown of certain foods. There are nine essential amino acids including histidine, leucine and valine. It is the essential amino acids that are addressed through food supplements, important to the bodybuilder’s workouts.
Branched Chain Amino Acids
Essential Branched Chain Amino Acids are especially important to bodybuilders because they fuel the muscle with energy directly. All amino acids are essential to keeping the muscle fuelled, but the BCAA work a bit faster than the others as they go directly into the bloodstream. Protein is digested and becomes individual amino acids. Those amino acids are then either stored to build new proteins later or used as energy – like an instant fuel. Bodybuilders depend on BCAA to break down into instant fuel to keep the amino acid supply up during rigorous workouts and training sessions. Without instant refuelling by amino acids a serious workout could result in little to no progress.
The benefits of BCAA include the stimulation of protein synthesis for providing instant energy to the muscle during strenuous exercise, enhanced endurance during strenuous exercise, faster recovery of amino acid supply to the muscle, the burning of excess fat, boosting the immune system.
BCAA are found naturally in whey and egg proteins and BCAA food supplements.
BCAA 6000 from Gaspari Nutrition uses a “leucine heavy”, 4:1:1 ratio of 100% pure high-grade branched chain amino acids in a formula that provides clinically suggested and effective quantities of these critical nutrients in every dose.
Las Vegas, NV (PRWEB) August 22, 2014
Mi40x, the latest guide from expert bodybuilder Ben Pakulski that uses university-proven research to show people how they can use a simple 4-minute trick to pack on pounds of lean muscle in only a matter of weeks has caught the attention of Shane Michaels, prompting an investigative review.
“Ben Pakulski is one of the most well-known bodybuilders in the industry, and if he uses this system to get the body he has today, that in itself is a testament to how effective this program really is,” reports Michaels. “But thousands of others have also used this program to experience the muscle-building results that Ben promises with this revolutionary method called cell expansion protocol, or CEP. This program gives people all the tools and resources they need to build four pounds of lean muscle in just 11 days.”
The Mi40x workout is the latest released version of Ben Pakulski’s original Mi40 program that is his result of years of training, research, and testing to find an exact system that works for everyone. His advanced CEP technique is based on the principle of aiding in faster cell repair through improved protein synthesis within the muscle, and doing this by adding a 4-minute technique to each muscle group workout that is simple and easy to follow. The entire program is available by instant download, and includes a series of e-manuals, digital videos and audio files that cover everything people need to know about following the program exactly. It also comes with a 7-day detox and primer diet guide, a nutrition guide, workout sheets, diet calculators, and a variety of bonus materials including a coaching call, hardcore abs, extreme suspension, and more. For a limited time, Ben Pakulski is offering the entire program for a deeply discounted price of just $ 97.
“Ben’s program is the answer for anyone who isn’t currently satisfied with how their workout program is helping them get the built, cut physique that they want,” said Michaels. “It’s easy enough for the beginning lifter to follow, but advanced enough to provide results for even the most experienced bodybuilder.”
“For less than the cost of a personal training session or consultation, people can have a treasure trove of information that will keep them building lean, bulky muscle for months and even years. And even if people aren’t sure whether it will work for them, they can be confident in purchasing it with the no-hassle money-back guarantee that Ben offers.”
Isotopes refer to differences in the number of neutrons in the nucleus of atoms; isotopes can be radioactive, when they decay, releasing energy in the process and stable isotopes, as the name indicates, do not decay and actually can be isolated as such. Most biologically active proteins have two or more stable isotopes, with the lightest ones representing the most abundant ones. For example C13 and N15 are heavy isotopes with an abundance of 1% and C12 and N14 have an abundance of 99%.. In the case of carbon, there is also a radioactive form C14.Stable isotopes can be introduced in to amino acids, by feeding growing bacteria with the corresponding precursor, containing the desired element. In turn these amino acids can be used to prepare the corresponding Fmoc protected amino acids, that then can be incorporated during peptide synthesis into specific positions of the given peptide/protein.
MALDI-TOF of small peptides may not easily detect the difference in mass, but in larger proteins one can more readily detect the differential mass distribution due to the presence of the heavy isotope. The biological researcher can introduce at will stable isotopes into the sequence of their interest, and this is very helpful in studying protein-protein interactions,using methods, such us proton NMR as an example. One challenge in using heavy/stable isotopes is their high cost, due to the cost involved during the enrichment process. Most masses given for peptides correspond to the calculated monoisotopic masses. For refined and/or special applications, the biological researcher will need to take into account the heavy isotope masses, and as we mention before, the heavier the protein the more noticeable the increased differential in the molecular weight of the protein in question. Synthetic peptide chemistry has proven very valuable as it allows the production of milligram to gram quantities of stable isotope containing peptides, where selected amino acids can at will contain the corresponding stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen or nitrogen
Bio-Synthesis Inc. a leading provider for Custom Antibody, Custom Peptides, Peptides, Peptide, Polypeptide, Custom siRNA Synthesis, Organic Laboratory Technique, Antibiotic Peptides.
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